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February 13
2017 年 2 月 13 日

男與女

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有人說,世界上只有兩種人:男人和女人。今天就說說男人和女人的一些事吧。

按照人口學,新生兒的正常性別比例約為每100名女性對應105名男性。雖然在中東一些地區,以及中國、韓國和印度等國家,新生男女的性別遠超出這個比例,目前世界各國總人口的性別比大致是平衡的。

再來用數字說話。雖然傳統父權社會主張「女子無才便是德」,到了今天,在相對文明、富裕的社會中,女性上學讀書已很普遍。不僅如此,根據統計,女生在中學時代的學習成績比男生佳。

以美國為例,目前大學生的人數大約女生為58%,男生為42%。當然,不同專業的男女學生比例可能不同,如電腦或工程學專業,依然男生為多。但是你們知道嗎?美國的某些專業,譬如獸醫學,女性與男性的比例約為8:2,女生人數大大多過男生;而獸醫學是門困難的專業,入學許可甚至比進一般醫學院還要難度高。

到了碩士生階段,情況開始變化,男生佔到65%,而女生只佔到35%;到了博士生階段,男性更高達80%,而女性卻減少到20%。但是從2009年起,女性碩士生和博士生人數首次超越男性。據美國研究生院委員會(Council of Graduate Schools)2016年9月公佈的《研究生招生及學位:2005至2015》調查報告,女性碩士生人數佔58.2%、女性博士生佔51.3%,而獲得碩士學位的女性學生佔58.4%,獲得博士學位的佔51.8%。

再來看職業生涯中的情況,在美國財富500強大型企業中,絕大多數 CEO 都是男性,女性可謂鳳毛麟角。2016 年的數據指出,女性 CEO 的比例僅佔4.2%。

由此看來,即使到了今天,雖然女性受教育機會已獲得改善,男女在職場上的差別仍舊很大,似乎男主外、女主內的傳統文化在東西方依然盛行。


Men and women

Some people say that there are only two kinds of people in the world: men and women. Let's talk about some of the things related to men and women today.

The normal sex ratio between males and females at birth is roughly 105 males for every 100 females. While the ratio may be much higher in favour of male babies in some Middle-Eastern countries and countries such as China, South Korea and India, the overall world sex ratio generally remains balanced.

Let me cite some numbers as examples. Although traditional patriarchal societies regard ignorance in women to be a virtue, it has long been popular in comparatively civilised and affluent societies for women to go to school. And statistics show that female students tend to perform better on average than male students in secondary school. In the US, for example, 58% of university students are female. Of course, this ratio may be different in certain disciplines; computer science and engineering, for example, are still dominated by male students. But in some majors, such as veterinary medicine, which is even harder to get into than medical school, female students outnumber male students by a ratio of 8 to 2.

But things were different in postgraduate studies, where until fairly recently, about 65% of students were male and at the doctoral level, up to 80% of the students were men. But that changed less than a decade ago; in 2009, female students outnumbered male students for the first time. According to a survey report "Graduate Enrolment and Degrees: 2005 to 2015", published in September 2016 by the Council of Graduate Schools in the US, "the majority of first-time graduate students both at the master's degree and certificate level (58.2%) and at the doctoral level (51.3%) were women. Women also earned the majority share of master's degrees (58.4%) and doctoral degrees (51.8%) awarded by US institutions in 2014-2015."

When it comes to top positions in the workplace, however, things remain unchanged, with the majority of CEO positions held by men in America's Fortune 500 companies. In the 2016 Fortune 500 list, women only held a paltry 4.2% of CEO positions.

It seems that even though educational opportunities for women have improved, there is still a huge difference in the workplace, where the traditional culture of men being the breadwinners and women the homemakers still dominates.

 

13 February, 2017

 

 

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