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December 07
2015 年 12 月 7 日

怒江上游的秤桿

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怒江沿江的半山腰上,常見瀑布似的湍急流水,注入江中。這一柱柱的水流,來自小型水電站。雖然沒有完整的統計,但據報導,這樣的小型水電站在怒江岸邊有一百座上下。

七月怒江遊,我們一行人離開匹河後,開上了與江水平行的道路,沿江而行,挑了一個位於秤桿鄉的水電站,不告而訪。吉普車爬上小山坡,司機在門外按了喇叭,表示外人來訪。應門的工程師李新美副站長,不但沒有為我們的失禮不快,反而還為自己身穿短褲、腳踏拖鞋而有些自責。無論是司機的唐突行為,或是副站長略帶邋遢的舉止,都顯現了當地人不拘小節的純樸風氣,也像極了台灣草根性的一面。

秤桿是怒江州瀘水縣堵堵洛河二級水電站,有三個機組,裝機容量可達六萬瓩。不過,水電站的技術問題在此就不多提了,說回李副站長吧。她是大理人,她先生是怒江少數民族,也是水電站站長。她為我們導遊,介紹了水電站的運作,也讓我們見到全站充滿快樂的田園氣氛。

隔天晚上,我們回到六庫。這個地方有典故:公元225年,雍闓被高定部曲所殺,孟獲收集起雍闓的散兵,抵抗諸葛亮的討伐軍。有人說六庫正是諸葛亮想令孟獲心服口服,七擒七縱的地方。

六庫上下的怒江,並非浪得虛名,擁有中國豐富的水力資源,是乾淨又便宜的理想電能來源,可以設立大型的水力電廠,彌補中國大陸嚴重不足的能源供應。不過,副站長告訴我,當地居民堅決反對任何破壞自然環境的人為設備。

註:本文曾載於聯合報(2015年11月17日)。


Hydraulic power plants along Nu Jiang River

All along Nu Jiang River in Yunnan province, one can often spot cascading water columns plunging into the river from high up the mountain slopes. Those water columns come from small hydraulic power plants. While there isn’t a complete record, it is reported that there are around 100 such power plants along the river.

I went on a trip along Nu Jiang River in July 2015 with a group of people. After leaving Pe He, we went along a road that runs parallel with the river down south and selected a hydraulic power plant in Ceng Gan for a visit, without prearranged appointment.

The jeep climbed up a hill and the driver honked his horn right outside the gate, announcing my arrival. The person coming to open the gate for us was a woman, named Ms Li Xinmei, who was an engineer and deputy head of the plant. She was more apologetic for greeting us in her casual wear, knee-shorts and slippers, than being ruffled by the blunt announcement of our visit. The uncourteous behaviour of our driver and the sloppy way the deputy head greeted us are a typical reflection of the casual and unostentatious manners of the local people. They reminded me of the grassroots behaviour of people in Taiwan.

Ceng Gan is a second-tier hydraulic power plant on the Du Du Luo River, a tributary of Nu Jiang River, situated in Lu Shui county in Nu Jiang prefecture. There are three power generators with a power generation capacity of 6 megawatts. I would not like to comment on the technological issues of the power plant here. Instead, I would like to say a few words about Ms Li, the deputy head. She is from Da Li, a major town several hundred kilometers away, and her husband is of an ethnic nationality group in the area. He is the head of the power plant. She worked as our guide, explaining how the power plant functioned and describing the idyllic atmosphere in the plant.

The next evening we returned to Liu Ku, a small town on the Nu Jiang River. This section of the river has rich water resources, ideal for building a large hydraulic power plant for clean and inexpensive electricity, to make up for the severe power shortage in mainland China. But Ms Li told me that local residents adamantly opposed any man-made structures that would impact the natural environment.

Liu Ku is also known for a household story well documented in the Chinese classic War of the Three Kingdoms. A local ethnic general, Men Huo, regrouped the disbanded soldiers of another army whose general, Yong Kai, was assassinated by the subordinate of a fellow general, Gao Ding, during their rebellion against the expeditionary army led by Zhu Geliang, the prime minister of the Kingdom of Shu. It is said that Liu Ku is where Zhu Geliang captured and released Men Huo seven times in order to command willing obedience from him.

Note:
This article was originally published in Chinese in the United Daily News (17 November, 2015).

7 December, 2015

 

 

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